Headquarters
United States Army, Europe, and Seventh Army
United States Army Installation Management Agency
    Europe Region Office
Heidelberg, Germany

Army in Europe
Pamphlet 385-15*

18 May 2005

Safety

Leader’s Operational Accident-Prevention Guide


*This pamphlet supersedes AE Pamphlet 385-15, 4 February 2005.



For the CG, USAREUR/7A:

E. PEARSON
Colonel, GS
Deputy Chief of Staff

Official:

GARY C. MILLER
Regional Chief Information
    Officer - Europe



Summary. This pamphlet provides accident-prevention policy for planning and executing tactical exercises and operations. It also provides safety standards on—

  • Using smoke simulators, pyrotechnics, chemicals, riot-control agents, and aircraft sprays in training.


  • Speed limits for tactical and nontactical vehicles (NTVs).


  • Uniform requirements for armored vehicle crews, tactical vehicles, and convoys.


  • Deployment-operation requirements.
  • Summary of Change. This revision—

  • Revises policy on transporting soldiers in cargo compartments (para 7n).


  • Incorporates procedures for towing wheeled and tracked vehicles (para 12c through h).
  • Applicability. This pamphlet applies to leaders in U.S. Army elements planning or conducting tactical exercise and operations in USAREUR areas of operation.

    Forms. AE and higher-level forms are available through the Army in Europe Publishing System (AEPUBS).

    Records Management. Records created as a result of processes prescribed by this pamphlet must be identified, maintained, and disposed of according to AR 25-400-2. File numbers and descriptions are available on the Army Information Management Records System Web site at https://www.arims.army.mil.

    Suggested Improvements. The proponent of this pamphlet is the USAREUR G1 (AEAGA-S, DSN 370-8084/8124). Users may suggest improvements to this pamphlet by sending DA Form 2028 to the USAREUR G1 (AEAGA-S), Unit 29351, APO AE 09014-9351.

    Distribution. A (AEPUBS).



    CONTENTS


    Section I
    INTRODUCTION


    Section II
    RISK MANAGEMENT


    Section III
    WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES


    Section IV
    MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATIONS WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES


    Section V
    CONVOY OPERATIONS—WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES


    Section VI
    TACTICAL OVERWATER OPERATIONS


    Section VII
    AVIATION-ACCIDENT PREVENTION


    Section VIII
    RAIL OPERATIONS


    Section IX
    PORT OPERATIONS


    Section X
    FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION


    Section XI
    POL SAFETY


    Section XII
    FIELD MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS


    Section XIII
    EXPLOSIVES AND AMMUNITION SAFETY


    Section XIV
    BIVOUAC ACCIDENT AND INJURY PREVENTION


    Section XV
    ACCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION


    Section XVI
    PREACCIDENT PLAN


    Section XVII
    MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE


    Section XVIII
    PREVENTING COLD- AND HOT-WEATHER INJURIES


    Section XIX
    PREVENTING CARBON-MONOXIDE POISONING


    Section XX
    LASER SAFETY


    Section XXI
    RF AND MICROWAVE RADIATION PROTECTION


    Appendixes
    A. References
    B. Hazard-Probability Tables
    C. Army Vehicles Authorized to Transport Ammunition and Explosives
    D. Fire Response Procedures Involving Depleted Uranium (Staballoy) Ammunition
    E. Approved Space Heaters

    Tables
    1. Maximum Speeds for Normal Driving Conditions
    2. Summary of Tactical Water Operations Emergency Support and Uniform Standards
    3. Small Arms Clearing Procedures
    4. Safe Separation Distances
    5. Wind Chill Index
    6. Wind Chill Categories
    7. Heat Injury Index
    8. Work Levels
    B-1. Risk Assessment Table
    B-2. Probability-Determination Chart
    B-3. USAREUR Decision-Authority for Ammunition and Explosives
    C-1. Vehicles Authorized to Carry Class 1
    C-2. Maximum Net Explosive Weight for Transport Units
    D-1. Radiological Protection Points of Contact

    Figures
    D-1. Firefighting Instructions (English and German)
    E-1. FOSH
    E-2. Space Heater, Arctic
    E-3. Space Heater, Convective
    E-4. Space Heater, Medium
    E-5. Space Heater, Small
    E-6. Thermoelectric Fan
    E-7. Dantherm VA-M 15
    E-8. Dantherm VA-M 40

    Glossary



    SECTION I
    INTRODUCTION


    1. PURPOSE
    This pamphlet provides operational risk-management and accident-prevention guidance and should be used with the following when appropriate:


    2. REFERENCES
    Appendix A lists references.


    3. EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS
    The glossary defines abbreviations and terms.


    4. RESPONSIBILITIES


    SECTION II
    RISK MANAGEMENT


    5. RISK-MANAGEMENT PROCESS
    FM 100-14 explains the principles, procedures, and responsibilities to successfully apply the risk-management process to conserve combat power and resources. The three principals for implementing the risk-management process are as follows:


    6. RISK MANAGEMENT
    DA Pamphlet 385-1, chapter 3, explains how risk management is carried out as part of unit operations and training. Leaders will—


    SECTION III
    WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES


    7. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    Commanders will ensure—

    WARNING
    Passengers are not permitted at any time in orange-plated
    vehicles transporting HAZMAT (AE Reg 55-4).

    Table 1
    Maximum Speeds for Normal Driving Conditions
      Cities Autobahns/
    Highways
    Other/
    Secondary
    Roads
    SPEED LIMITS FOR NONTACTICAL VEHICLES (mph/kph)
    NTVs under 7,000 lbs GVW (for example, minivans, cargo trucks, carryalls, panel trucks, sedans)31/5074/12060/100
    Exceptions
    Buses or NTVs carrying 12 or more passengers seated31/5050/8050/80
    Buses or NTVs carrying 12 or more passengers standing31/50Not
    Authorized
    Not
    Authorized
    NTVs over 7,000 lbs GVW (for example, semitrailers, stake trucks, truck tractors, water tankers, wreckers)31/5050/8037/60
    Any NTVs pulling any type of trailer31/5050/8050/80
    SPEED LIMITS FOR TACTICAL VEHICLES (mph/kph)
    March columns (excluding vehicles that might further restrict speed)31/5050/8050/80
    Oversized, overweight, and towed vehicles31/5050/8037/60
    Trucks, ¼- to 1¼-ton (with or without trailers, including HMMWVs and CUCVs)31/5050/8037/60
    Trucks and truck tractors, 1½-ton and larger (with or without trailers)25/4050/8037/60
    Trucks transporting ammunition, explosives, or dangerous cargo25/4050/8037/60
    M939 family of vehicles that have not had the ABS retrofit MWO completed25/4040/6535/57
    NOTES: 1. The above speed limits will be observed unless a lower speed limit is posted; prescribed by the applicable operators technical manual for the vehicle; or weather, traffic, or road conditions warrant a lower speed.
    2. For vehicles carrying hazardous cargo—
        a. If visibility is less than 50 meters, the driver will stop at the nearest parking area until visibility improves.
        b. If a vehicle weighing more than 3.5 tons and carrying hazardous cargo is traveling faster than 31 mph/50 kph, it will maintain a distance of at least 50 meters from the vehicle in front.


    8. SELECTING AND TRAINING DRIVERS
    Commanders will ensure drivers for single-vehicle missions (nonconvoy) are selected carefully. Commanders will consider driver maturity, experience, and fatigue. Senior vehicle occupants must be briefed and understand their duties and responsibilities. USAREUR Regulation 385-55, appendix B, and this pamphlet, paragraph 19, explain senior occupant responsibilities.


    9. CREW ENDURANCE AND SAFE DRIVING


    10. OPERATING WHEELED VEHICLES
    Commanders will ensure—


    11. OPERATING TRACKED VEHICLES


    12. TOWING WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES
    Commanders will ensure—


    SECTION IV
    MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATIONS WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES


    13. GENERAL
    This section provides requirements for the use of night vision devices (NVDs) by motor vehicle operators (TC 21-305-2).


    14. RESPONSIBILITIES


    15. TRAINING


    SECTION V
    CONVOY OPERATIONS—WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES


    16. PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS
    Before convoy operations, commanders will review the operating standards in AE Regulation 55-1, conduct a risk assessment, and brief personnel on the mission. All convoys (three or more vehicles) must have the required convoy safety equipment (including convoy signs and RAWLS). Use of convoy flags is a movement-credit requirement, not a safety requirement. Commanders of convoy serials and march units will—


    17. REQUIREMENTS DURING OPERATIONS


    18. IDENTIFYING MARCH UNITS


    19. SENIOR OCCUPANT RESPONSIBILITIES
    The senior occupant of an Army motor vehicle is the person in the vehicle (operator or passenger) with the highest rank. The senior occupant will—


    SECTION VI
    TACTICAL OVERWATER OPERATIONS


    20. STANDARDS
    USAREUR Regulation 385-4 provides tactical overwater operations safety standards for shallow-water fording, amphibious-vehicle swimming, rafting and bridging, and assault-boat operations.


    21. PLANNING
    Planning is critical to the success of overwater operations. Each commander will have a written plan specific to the unit and operations before beginning tactical overwater operations.


    22. RISK ANALYSIS
    Mission planners will prepare risk analyses of overwater operations. When safety standards in USAREUR Regulation 385-4 must be modified, commanders will request approval from the chain of command up to the division or equivalent level.


    23. EMERGENCY SUPPORT AND UNIFORM STANDARDS
    USAREUR Regulation 385-4 (app A) and table 2 provide emergency support and uniform standards. The glossary defines abbreviations used in table 2.


    Table 2, Summary of Tactical Water Operations Emergency Support and Uniform Standards


    SECTION VII
    AVIATION-ACCIDENT PREVENTION


    24. GENERAL
    Commanders will ensure—


    25. OPERATIONS IN AND AROUND AIRCRAFT
    Commanders will brief supported units on the following precautions for working around aircraft:


    26. AVIATION OPERATION REQUIREMENTS
    U.S. Army visual flight rule (VFR) guidelines for day and night operations are as follows:

    NOTE: This guide is available at https://safety.army.mil/pages/pov/arac/crewend.pdf or from the United States Army Combat Readiness Center.


    27. MEDICAL AIR EVACUATION PROCEDURES


    SECTION VIII
    RAIL OPERATIONS


    28. PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS


    29. LOADING AND UNLOADING PROCEDURES


    30. RAIL SUPERCARGO OPERATIONS

    NOTE: The engineer of the train is responsible only for the train, not the security of the cargo.


    SECTION IX
    PORT OPERATIONS


    31. PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS


    32. OPERATIONS


    SECTION X
    FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION


    33. RESPONSIBILITIES


    34. TENTS


    35. INSTALLING AND OPERATING SPACE HEATERS


    36. FIELD MESS


    37. FIRE PREVENTION STANDARDS


    38. LITHIUM BATTERIES


    SECTION XI
    POL SAFETY


    39. GENERAL
    Commanders will—


    40. REFUELING PROCEDURES
    When refueling—


    41. POL SUPPLY-POINT REQUIREMENTS
    Commanders will ensure—


    SECTION XII
    FIELD MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS


    42. FIRE PREVENTION
    To prevent fires during field maintenance, commanders will—


    43. BRAKE-TESTING ARMY MOTOR VEHICLES


    44. OPERATING VEHICLES IN MAINTENANCE AREAS


    45. PERSONNEL SAFETY IN MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS


    SECTION XIII
    EXPLOSIVES AND AMMUNITION SAFETY


    46. GENERAL
    Commanders will—


    47. FIRE PRECAUTIONS


    48. UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE


    49. SMALL ARMS HANDLING


    Table 3
    Small Arms Clearing Procedures
    M9 Pistol (TM 9-1005-317-10)

    1. Orient the weapon in a safe direction (clearing container, if available).
    2. Place the decocking/safety on SAFE.
    3. Depress the magazine release button and remove the magazine.
    4. Grasp the slide narrations and fully retract the slide to remove the chambered cartridge.
    5. Lock the slide to the rear using the slide stop, and visually inspect the chamber to ensure it is empty.
    6. Release the slide stop to allow the slide to return fully to the forward position.
    7. Place the weapon on FIRE.
    8. Squeeze the trigger.
    9. Place the weapon on SAFE.
    M16 and M4 (TM 9-1005-319-10)

    1. Orient the weapon in a safe direction (clearing container, if available).
    2. Remove the magazine from the weapon.
    3. Attempt to place the weapon selector lever on SAFE.
    4. Lock the bolt to the rear. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE.
    5. Inspect the receiver and chamber to ensure no ammunition is present.
    6. With NO ammunition in the chamber or receiver, allow the bolt to go forward.
    7. Aim the weapon into a clearing container, rotate the selector lever to SEMI, and squeeze the trigger.
    8. Charge the weapon once.
    9. Place the selector lever on SAFE.
    SAW - M249 (TM 9-1005-201-10)

    WARNING: DO NOT INSTALL OR REMOVE A LOADED WEAPON FROM A MOUNTING BRACKET.

    1. Orient the weapon in a safe direction (clearing container, if available).
    2. Remove the magazine.
    3. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE. If the weapon is not on SAFE, with the right hand palm up, pull the cocking handle to the rear, locking the bolt in place.
    4. While holding the cocking handle, move the selector lever to the SAFE position by pushing it to the right until the red ring is not visible.
    5. Return and lock the cocking handle to the forward position.
        a. Squeeze the latches to open the cover assembly.
        b. Remove the ammunition belt and any loose rounds present on the feed tray.
    6. Conduct a five-point safety check:
        1: Check the feeder pawl assembly under the cover.
        2: Check the feed tray assembly.
        3: Lift the feed tray assembly and inspect the chamber.
        4: Check the space between the bolt assembly and the chamber.
        5: Insert two fingers into the magazine well and extract any brass, links, or ammunition.
    7. Close the feed tray cover.
    8. With the right hand palm up, pull the cocking handle to the rear. While holding the cocking handle, place the weapon on FIRE. Squeeze the trigger and ride the bolt forward.
    M240 - Machinegun (TM 9-1005-313-10)

    WARNING: DO NOT INSTALL OR REMOVE A LOADED WEAPON FROM A MOUNTING BRACKET.

    1. Orient the weapon in a safe direction (clearing lane).
    2. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE. If the bolt is in the forward position, place the weapon on FIRE and pull the cocking handle to the rear, locking the bolt to the rear. Place the weapon on SAFE.
    3. Push in the latches to open the cover assembly.
    4. Remove the ammunition belt.
    5. Check the feed tray.
        a. Lift the feed tray and inspect the chamber.
        b. Check the space between the face of the bolt and the chamber, including the space under the bolt and the operating rod assembly.
    6. Close the feed tray and feed tray cover.
    7. Place the safety on FIRE.
    8. Pull and hold the charger cable (or cocking handle assembly) to the rear, pull the trigger, and ease the bolt forward to close and lock.
    M60 - Machinegun (TM 9-1005-224-10)

    WARNING: DO NOT INSTALL OR REMOVE A LOADED WEAPON FROM A MOUNTING BRACKET.

    1. Orient the weapon in a safe direction (clearing lane).
    2. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE. If the bolt is in the forward position, place the weapon on FIRE and pull the cocking handle to the rear, locking the bolt to the rear. Place the weapon on SAFE.
    3. Push in the latches to open the cover assembly.
    4. Remove the ammunition belt.
    5. Check the feed tray.
        a. Lift the feed tray and inspect the chamber.
        b. Check the space between the face of the bolt and the chamber, including the space under the bolt and operating rod assembly.
    6. Close the feed tray and feed tray cover.
    7. Place the safety to FIRE.
    8. Pull and hold the charger cable (or cocking handle assembly) to the rear, pull the trigger, and ease the bolt forward to close and lock.


    50. AMMUNITION, SIMULATORS, PYROTECHNICS, AND CHEMICALS
    The use of blank ammunition, simulators, pyrotechnics, and chemicals in training is subject to the following restrictions:


    51. VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS


    52. AMMUNITION- AND EXPLOSIVES-LOADING COMPATIBILITY


    53. LOAD STABILITY


    54. SAFETY IN TRANSIT


    55. STORAGE PRECAUTIONS


    Table 4
    Safe Separation Distances
    Amount of Explosives
    (Kilograms)
    Distance (Meters)
    D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
    514818027020
    10251018027020
    20271318027020
    30271518027020
    40381618027020
    50391818027020
    60391918027026
    753102018027026
    1004112218027032
    1254122418027038
    1504132618027042
    17541327180270 
    20051428180270 
    22551529180270 
    25051530180270 
    27551631180270 
    30051632180270 
    35061734180270 
    40061835180270 
    45061837180270 
    50061938180270 
    60072040180270 
    70072143180270 
    80072245180270 
    90082346180270 
    1,00082448180270 
    1,10082550180270 
    1,20092651180270 
    1,30092652180270 
    1,40092754180270 
    1,50092755180270 
    1,60092856180270 
    1,800102958180270 
    2,000103060180270 
    2,500113365180270 
    3,000123569200305 
    3,500123673215330 
    4,000133876230350 
    D1=0.8Q1/3
    D2=2.4Q1/3
    D3=4.8Q1/3
    D4=3.6Q½
    D5=5.5Q½
    NOTES: 1. QD separations:
        a. Column D1 is used for—
            (1) Side-to-side, side-to-rear, and rear-to-rear exposures between undefined earth-covered magazines, and the explosives are stored at least 1 meter (3 feet) from the end of the shelter.
            (2) Nonarmored sites to nonarmored sites when an adequate barricade is located between the sites.
            (3) Light armored vehicles to nonarmored explosives sites when an adequate barricade is near the nonarmored explosive site.
            (4) Light armor or nonarmored potential explosives sites to light armored explosives sites when an adequate barricade is located between the sites.
        b. Column D2 is used for—
            (1) Front-to-front exposures involving undefined earth covered magazines when there is an adequate barricade at the explosives sites.
            (2) Nonarmored or light armored sites to the side or rear of an undefined earth covered magazine.
        c. Column D3 is used for—
            (1) Nonarmored sites to nonarmored sites without an adequate barricade.
            (2) Light armored vehicles to nonarmored sites without an adequate barricade at the nonarmored site.
            (3) Undefined earth covered magazines to undefined earth covered magazines when positioned front-to-front and no barricade is present.
            (4) Nonarmored sites, light armored sites or undefined earth covered magazines to the front of undefined earth covered magazines when no barricade is present at the explosives site.
        d. Column D4 is used for public traffic route (PTR) separations from nonarmored and light armored vehicles and sites.
        e. Column D5 is the inhabited building distance (IBD) separation from non-armored and light armored vehicles or sites.
        f. Column D6 is used to determine the IBD and PTR separation from heavy armored vehicles. When NEQ exceeds 150 kg (330 lb) the IBD and PTR separation distances specified in columns D4 and D5 apply.
    2. Heavy armored vehicles are expected to largely contain the blast and fragments from an internal explosion and are well protected from an external explosion. For this reason there is no required separation from heavy armor to light or non-armored sites. Additionally, heavy armor requires no separation from other sites (heavy armor being the explosives site). The hatches of heavy armored vehicles must be kept closed to consider them as heavy armor.
    3. The QD requirements for light and nonarmored vehicles or sites are as follows:
    TO=> Heavy Light Nonarmored PTR IBD
    From LightNRD1D3D4D5
    From NonarmoredNRD1D3D4D5
    4. Use D=9.5Q1/3/D=12Q1/3 (K24/30) instead of D1, D2 and D3 for asset preservation.
    5. The total NEQ/NEW of ammunition in all trucks or trailers within a truck or trailer park will be used for QD computations if the trucks or trailers within a park occupy one storage site and are not separated from each other by QD specified in 2 above.
    6. Intermagazine separation requirements of DA Pamphlet 385-64, chapter 5, apply when basic load ammunition is stored in standard magazines. When earth covered shelters of light construction (for example, a MILVAN covered with dirt, are used) the D1 distances apply to side-to-side configurations with earth cover, and the explosives are stored at least 1 meter from the end of the shelter. If end-to-end sitings are involved, the D2 distances apply provided there is a barricade. D3 distances apply if there is no barricade.
    7. The Bradley Fighting Vehicle is expected to contain blast and fragments from its HD 1.2, 25mm ammunition. If a Bradley is uploaded only with 25 mm ammunition it can be considered as “heavy armor.” If a Bradley is only uploaded with 25mm ammunition it can be consider as “heavy armor.”
    8. Barracks, headquarters, and maintenance facilities within a military installation will be separated from mixed compatibility, basic load ammunition of less than 4,000 kg NEQ/8,820 pounds NEW by D5 distances.



    SECTION XIV
    BIVOUAC ACCIDENT AND INJURY PREVENTION


    56. SITE REQUIREMENTS


    57. GENERAL SAFETY RULES


    SECTION XV
    ACCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION


    58. REPORTS
    The primary purpose of accident investigation and reporting is to prevent accidents. This means that safety reports of accidents will not be used for disciplinary or liability purposes (AR 385-40, para 1-5). Military or civilian police officials will initially estimate Army and civilian damages and include the damage estimates in official police reports. Army unit-maintenance personnel will inspect vehicles to determine actual damage.


    59. ACCIDENT TYPES
    An Army accident is defined as “an unplanned event, or series of events, that results in injury or illness to either Army or non-Army personnel, or damage to Army or non-Army property as a direct result of Army operations (caused by the Army), or both.” A recordable accident (over $2,000 damage to Army property or a workday lost by Army personnel) when there is no degree of fault by the Army (military or civilian) will be reported and recorded according to AR 385-40, DA Pamphlet 385-40, and AE Regulation 385-40.


    60. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES
    Class A and B accidents will be investigated using the procedures in AR 385-40, DA Pamphlet 385-40, and AE Regulation 385-40.


    SECTION XVI
    PREACCIDENT PLAN


    61. GUIDE TO PREACCIDENT PLAN
    The unit commander will establish and implement the preaccident plan. The information in this section is not all-inclusive or restrictive. Unit commanders will decide what additional information needs to be in their preaccident plans.


    62. PRIMARY NOTIFICATION


    63. SECONDARY NOTIFICATION
    The victim’s unit will notify the following when necessary:


    SECTION XVII
    MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE


    64. ARMY MEDICAL SUPPORT


    65. MEDEVAC


    66. CIVILIAN MEDICAL SUPPORT


    67. INDIVIDUAL HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES


    SECTION XVIII
    PREVENTING COLD- AND HOT-WEATHER INJURIES


    68. COLD-WEATHER INJURIES


    Table 5
    Wind Chill Index
    Wind (mph) Temperature (Fahrenheit (oF))
    Calm4035302520151050-5-10-15-20-25-30-35-40-45
    5363125191371-5-11-16-22-28-34-40-46-52-57-63
    103427211593-4-10-16-22-28-35-41-47-53-59-66-72
    153225191360-7-13-19-26-32-39-45-51-58-64-71-77
    20302417114-2-9-15-22-29-35-42-48-55-61-68-74-81
    2529231693-4-11-17-24-31-37-44-51-58-64-71-78-84
    3028221581-5-12-19-26-33-39-46-53-60-67-73-80-87
    3528211470-7-14-21-27-34-41-48-55-62-69-76-82-89
    402720136-1-8-15-22-29-36-43-50-57-64-71-78-84-91
    452619125-2-9-16-23-30-37-44-51-58-65-72-79-86-93
    502619124-3-10-17-24-31-38-45-52-60-67-74-81-88-95
    552518114-3-11-18-25-32-39-46-54-61-68-75-82-89-97
    602517103-4-11-19-26-33-40-48-55-62-69-76-84-91-98
    Frostbite in:   30 min 10 min 5 min
      Little
    Danger
    Increasing
    Danger
    Higher
    Danger


    Table 6
    Wind Chill Categories
    Work Intensity Little Danger Increasing Danger Higher Danger
    High
    Digging foxhole, running, marching with rucksack, making or breaking bivouac
    Increased surveillance by small-unit leaders; black gloves optional, mandatory below 0 oF; increased hydrationECWCS or equivalent; mittens with liners; no facial camouflage; exposed skin covered and kept dry; rest in warm, sheltered areas; vapor-barrier boots below 0 oFPostpone nonessential activity; essential tasks only with less than 15-minute exposure; workgroups of no less than two; cover all exposed skin
    Low
    Walking, marching without rucksack, drill and ceremony
    Increased surveillance; cover exposed flesh when possible; mittens with liner and no facial camouflage below 10 oF; full head cover below 0 oF; keep skin dry, especially around nose and mouthRestrict nonessential activity; 30-40 minute work cycles with frequent supervisory surveillance for essential tasks (see above)Cancel outdoor activity if possible
    Sedentary
    Sentry duty, eating, resting, sleeping, clerical work
    See above; full head-cover and no facial camouflage below 10 oF; cold-weather boots (VB) below 0 oF; shorten duty cycles; provide warming facilitiesPostpone nonessential activity; 15-20 minute workcycles for essential tasks; workgroups of no less than two personnel; no exposed skinCancel outdoor activity if possible
    General Guidance for Cold Weather Operations


    Skin: Exposed skin is more likely to develop frostbite. Covering the skin lessens the risk provided the skin is kept dry.
    Clothing: Soldiers will change into dry clothing at least daily and whenever clothing becomes wet, and will wash and dry feet and put on dry socks at least twice daily.
    Nutrition: 4,500 calories per day per soldier. Equivalent to one ration-cold weather or four MREs.
    Hydration: 3 to 6 liters (canteens) per day per soldier. Warm, sweet, noncaffeinated drinks are preferable.
    Camouflage: Prevents detection of cold injuries. Not recommended below 10 oF.
    Responsibilities: Soldiers are responsible for preventing individual cold injuries. Unit NCOs are responsible for health and safety of their troops.


    69. HOT-WEATHER INJURIES


    Table 7
    Heat Injury Index
    Heat
    Category
    WBGT oF Easy Work Moderate Work Hard Work
    Work/
    Rest*
    Water
    Per Hour
    Work/
    Rest*
    Water
    Per Hour
    Work/
    Rest*
    Water
    Per Hour
    178-81.9No Limit0.5 qtNo Limit0.75 qt40/20 min0.75 qt
    282-84.9No Limit0.5 qt50/10 min0.75 qt30/30 min1.0 qt
    385-87.9No Limit0.75 qt40/20 min0.75 qt30/30 min1.0 qt
    488-89.9No Limit0.75 qt30/30 min0.75 qt20/40 min1.0 qt
    5>9050/10 min1.0 qt20/40 min1.0 qt10/50 min1.0 qt
  • Rest means minimal physical activity (sitting or standing) and should be accomplished in the shade if possible.


  • NOTES: 1. The work/rest times and fluid replacement volumes must sustain performance and hydration for at least 4 hours of work in the specified heat category. Individual water needs will vary ± 0.25 quart (qt) per hour.
    2. CAUTION: Hourly fluid intake should not exceed 1.5 quarts. Daily fluid intake should not exceed 12 quarts.
    3. MOPP gear or body armor adds 10 OF to WBGT Index.


    Table 8
    Work Levels
    Easy Work Moderate Work Hard Work
  • Weapon maintenance

  • Walking on hard surface at 2.5 mph, 30-pound load

  • Manual of arms Drill and ceremony
  • Walking on loose sand at 2.5 mph, no load

  • Walking on hard surface at 3.5 mph; <40-pound load

  • Calisthenics

  • Patrolling

  • Individual movement technique (for example, low crawl, high crawl

  • Defensive-position construction

  • Field assaults
  • Walking on hard surface at 3.5 mph, 40-pound load

  • Walking on loose sand at 2.5 mph with load
  • NOTE: Soldiers who are overweight, dieting, or past heat casualties are more prone to heat injuries. As a result, their activities must be closely monitored.


    SECTION XIX
    PREVENTING CARBON-MONOXIDE POISONING


    70. BACKGROUND


    71. RESPONSIBILITIES


    72. PRECAUTIONS
    To prevent carbon-monoxide poisoning, soldiers will—


    73. SYMPTOMS OF CARBON-MONOXIDE POISONING


    74. TREATING CARBON-MONOXIDE POISONING
    To treat victims of carbon-monoxide poisoning—


    SECTION XX
    LASER SAFETY


    75. INTRODUCTION


    76. GENERAL
    Increased use of military lasers for rangefinding and target designation as well as the availability of inexpensive laser pointers significantly increases the potential for laser exposure. Aircraft are especially vulnerable to being hit by laser beams. The aircraft AN/AVR-2 laser detector provides the pilot an indication of laser exposure but cannot distinguish lasers by their illumination characteristics. This makes assessment of potential injury impossible. Lasers can pose a threat to ground forces during maneuver training, firing exercises, and real-world missions. Maintenance personnel are exposed during maintenance on lasers. Lasers can be hazardous at great distances. For military laser beams, this distance can be from 10 kilometers for the unaided eye up to 100 kilometers for viewing through unprotected optics.


    77. LASER SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
    AR 385-63 lists laser systems and their surface danger zones.


    SECTION XXI
    RF AND MICROWAVE RADIATION PROTECTION


    78. BACKGROUND


    79. HAZARDS


    80. CONTROL MEASURES

     

    APPENDIX A
    REFERENCES


    A-1. ARMY REGULATIONS

    AR 11-9, The Army Radiation Safety Program

    AR 11-34, The Army Respiratory Protection Program

    AR 40-5, Preventive Medicine

    AR 40-21, Medical Aspects of Army Aircraft Accident Investigation

    AR 40-400, Patient Administration

    AR 95-1, Fight Regulations

    AR 200-1, Environmental Protection and Enhancement

    AR 385-40, Accident Reporting and Records

    AR 385-42, Investigation of NATO Nation Aircraft or Missile Accidents and Incidents

    AR 385-55, Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents

    AR 385-63, Range Safety

    AR 385-64, U.S. Army Explosives Safety Program

    AR 600-55, The Army Driver and Operator Standardization Program (Selection, Training, Testing, and Licensing)

    AR 750-1 and AE Supplement 1, Army Materiel Maintenance Policy


    A-2. DA PAMPHLETS

    DA Pamphlet 40-501, Hearing Conservation Program

    DA Pamphlet 385-1, Small Unit Safety Officer/NCO Guide

    DA Pamphlet 385-40, Army Accident Investigation and Reporting

    DA Pamphlet 385-64, Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards


    A-3. FIELD MANUALS

    FM 3-04.300, Flight Operations Procedures

    FM 3-05.70, Survival

    FM 3-11.4, Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Protection

    FM 10-23, Basic Doctrine for Army Field Feeding and Class I Operations Management

    FM 10-67-1, Concepts and Equipment of Petroleum Operations

    FM 21-60, Visual Signals

    FM 21-305, Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver

    FM 55-30, Army Motor Transport Units and Operations

    FM 100-14, Risk Management


    A-4. TECHNICAL MANUALS

    TM 9-1005-201-10, Operator’s Manual for Machine Gun, 5.56-mm, M249 w/Equip (NSN 1005-01-127-7510) (EIC: 4BG)

    TM 9-1005-224-10, Operator’s Manual for Machine Gun, 7.62-mm, M60 w/e (NSN 1005-00-605-7710) (EIC: 4AJ) and Machine Gun, 7.62-mm, M60D w/e (1005-00-909-3002) (EIC: 4A8)

    TM 9-1005-313-10, Operators Manual for Machine Gun, 7.62mm, M240 (NSN 1005-01-025-8095) M240B (1005-01-412-3129) M240C (1005-01-085-4758) M240D (1005-01-418-6995) M240E1 (1005-01-252-4288) M240G (1005-01-359-2714) M240N (1005-01-493-1666)

    TM 9-1005-317-10, Operator’s Manual for Pistol, Semiautomatic, 9mm, M9 (NSN 1005-01-118-2640)

    TM 9-1005-319-10, Operator’s Manual for Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2 w/e (NSN 1005-01-128-9936) (EIC: 4GM); Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A3 (1005-01-357-5112); Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4 (1005-01-383-2872) (EIC: 4F9); Carbine, 5.56mm, M4 w/e (1005-01-231-0973) (EIC: 4FJ); Carbine, 5.56mm, M4A1 (1005-01-382-0953) (EIC: 4GC)

    TM 10-4500-200-13, Operator’s, Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) For Heaters, Space: Radiant Type, Portable (Type I, Model 1941, Solid Fuel) (NSN 4520-00-257-4877); (Type II, Model 1941, Liquid Fuel) (4520-00-927-4214); (Yukon Model M1950, Solid or Liquid Fuel) (4520-00-287-3353); Heaters, Immersion: Liquid Fuel Fired for Corrugated Cans (All Makes and Models) (4540-00-266-6835) (Preway Model 447-2EX) (4540-00-266-6834)

    TM 9-4540-202-12&P, Operator’s and Organizational Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) for Heater, Immersion, Liquid Fuel Fired 35,000 BTU Output for Corrugated Cans (Military Model M67) (NSN 4540-00-469-6593)

    TM 10-7360-204-13&P, Operator’s, Organizational and Direct Support Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List for Range Outfit, Field; Gasoline, Model M59 (NSN 7360-00-082-2153), Burner Unit, Gasoline, Model M2 (7310-00-842-9247); Model M2A (7310-01-017-1285); Model M2A w/Safety Device (7310-01-113-9172), Accessory Outfit, Gasoline, Range w/Baking Rack (7360-00-187-4757)

    TM 38-250, Preparing Hazardous Materials for Military Air Shipments


    A-5. TECHNICAL BULLETINS

    Technical Bulletin (TB) 9-1300-278, Guidelines for Safe Response to Handling, Storage, and Transportation Accidents Involving Army Tank Munitions or Armor Which Contain Depleted Uranium

    TB 43-0142, Safety Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices

    TB MED 507, Heat Stress Control and Heat Casualty Management

    TB MED 508, Prevention and Management of Cold-Weather Injuries

    TB MED 524, Control of Hazards to Health From Laser Radiation


    A-6. TRAINING CIRCULARS

    Training Circular (TC) 21-305, Training Program for Wheeled Vehicle Accident Avoidance

    TC 21-305-2, Training Program for Night Vision Goggle Driving Operations


    A-7. AE AND USAREUR REGULATIONS

    AE Regulation 10-5, HQ USAREUR/7A and Select Commands

    AE Regulation 55-1, United States Army Motor Vehicle Operations on Public Roads

    AE Regulation 55-4, Safe Movement of Hazardous Goods by Surface Modes

    AE Regulation 95-1, General Provisions and Flight Regulations for Army Aviation

    AE Regulation 190-1, Registering and Operating Privately Owned Motor Vehicles in Germany

    AE Regulation 385-7, Respiratory Protection Program

    AE Regulation 385-40, Accident Reporting and Records

    AE Regulation 600-55, Driver- and Operator-Standardization Program

    USAREUR Regulation 200-1, USAREUR Environmental Quality Program

    USAREUR Regulation 385-4, Tactical Overwater Operations

    USAREUR Regulation 385-55, Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents

    USAREUR Regulation 385-64, USAREUR Explosives Safety Program


    A-8. AE AND USAREUR PAMPHLETS

    AE Pamphlet 190-34, Drivers Handbook and Examination Manual for Germany

    AE Pamphlet 385-15-1, Commander’s Convoy Checklist and Risk Assessment

    AE Pamphlet 385-15-2, Commander’s Rail Operations Checklist and Risk Assessment

    AE Pamphlet 385-15-3, Port Operations Checklist and Risk Assessment

    AE Pamphlet 385-15-4, Sea and Supercargo Operations Checklist and Risk Assessment


    A-9. MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS

    Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 3101, Exchange of Accident/Incident Information Concerning Aircraft and Missiles

    Code of Federal Regulation, title 29, part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Act Standard (29 CFR 1910) (available through local safety offices or online at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html)

    Leader’s Guide to Crew Endurance (available from the United States Army Combat Readines Center or online at https://safety.army.mil/pages/pov/arac/crewend.pdf)


    A-10. FORMS

    DD Form 626, Motor Vehicle Inspection

    DD Form 1348, DOD Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Manual)

    DD Form 1348-1A, Issue Release/Receipt Document

    DA Form 285, U.S. Army Accident Report

    DA Form 285-AB-R, U.S. Army Abbreviated Ground Accident Report (AGAR)

    DA Form 581, Request for Issue and Turn-In of Ammunition

    DA Form 2028, Recommended Change to Publications and Blank Forms

    DA Form 5987-E, Motor Equipment Dispatch

    DA Form 5988-E, Equipment Inspection Maintenance Worksheet

    DA Form 7305-R, Telephonic Notification of Aviation Accident/Incident

    DA Form 7306-R, Telephonic Notification of Ground Accident

    DA Form 7319-R, Explosive Waiver/Exemption Request

     

    APPENDIX B
    HAZARD-PROBABILITY TABLES


    B-1. GENERAL
    This appendix provides tables for assessing hazards and accepting risks. Table B-1 is a risk-assessment table. Paragraphs B-2 through B-4 explain the parts of this table. Table B-2 will be used to determine the probability of risks when using explosives. Table B-3 will be used to determine approval authorities for accepting risks involved in the use of hazard division 1.1 and 1.2 material.


    Table B-1
    Risk Assessment Table
    EFFECT HAZARD PROBABILITY
    FREQUENT
    A
    LIKELY
    B
    OCCASIONAL
    C
    SELDOM
    D
    UNLIKELY
    E
    CATASTROPHIC
    I
    EXTREMELY HIGH

    (20)
    EXTREMELY HIGH

    (18)
    HIGH

    (15)
    HIGH

    (13)
    MEDIUM

    (8)
    CRITICAL
    II
    EXTREMELY HIGH

    (19)
    HIGH

    (16)
    HIGH

    (14)
    MEDIUM

    (9)
    LOW

    (4)
    MARGINAL
    III
    HIGH

    (17)
    MEDIUM

    (11)
    MEDIUM

    (10)
    LOW

    (5)
    LOW

    (2)
    NEGLIGIBLE
    IV
    MEDIUM

    (12)
    LOW

    (7)
    LOW

    (6)
    LOW

    (3)
    LOW

    (1)


    B-2. EFFECT
    The meanings of items in the Effect column of table B-1 are as follows:


    B-3. PROBABILITY
    Unit experience and exposure affect the probability of an occurrence. The meanings of items in the Hazard Probability row of table B-1 are as follows:


    B-4. SEVERITY LEVELS
    The meanings of the severity levels in table B-1 are as follows:


    B-5. CONDUCTING EXPLOSIVE SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENTS AND DETERMINING DECISION AUTHORITIES
    Leaders will use the following when conducting risk assessments on activities that involve the use of explosives (USAREUR Reg 385-64).

    NOTE: DA Pamphlet 385-64, paragraph 5-4, and USAREUR Regulation 385-64, appendix B, provide more information on using this formula.


    Table B-2
    Probability-Determination Chart
    Activity Type Activity Environment
    Operations
    in a hostile area
    Unserviceable items
    awaiting destruction
    Initial tests of
    new systems
    Outdoors in
    inclement weather
    Exercises/
    contingencies/
    alerts
    Flightlines Missile systems
    Assembly/disassembly/LAP/
    maintenance/Renovation
    LNALOOOO
    Demil/demolition/disposalLLNAOONAO
    TrainingLNANASSSS
    Handling/loadingOOOSSSS
    Transportation—break bulkSNANASSSS
    Transportation—containerizedUNAUUUUU
    InspectionUNAOUUUU
    StorageUNAUUUUU
    Key: L=frequent/likely, O=occasional, S=seldom, U=unlikely, NA=not applicable


    B-6. RISK-LEVEL AND DECISION-AUTHORITY DETERMINATION


    Table B-3
    USAREUR Decision-Authority for Ammunition and Explosives
    Probability Severity D=KQ1/3 (D=distance, K=severity factor, Q=NEQ)
    Catastrophic
    D=2.4Q1/3
    Catastrophic
    D=4.4Q1/3
    Critical
    D=7.2Q1/3
    Marginal
    D=9.6Q1/3
    Negligible
    D=16Q1/3
    Frequent/likelyExtremely highExtremely highExtremely highHighMedium
    OccasionalExtremely highHighHighMediumLow
    SeldomHighHighMediumLowLow
    Unlikely MediumMediumLowLowLow
    DECISION AUTHORITY:
    a. The CG, USAREUR/7A, is the approval authority for extremely high-risk waivers and all exemptions.
    b. A general officer must approve high- and medium-risk waivers.
    c. Commanders of USAREUR commands (AE Reg 10-5, app A) may approve low-risk waivers.
    NOTES: 1. Off-installation exposures must be coordinated with the host nation.
    2. For exposures of military family housing or nonmission-related structures of public assembly such as schools, churches, and hospitals, the approval authority may not be delegated below general-officer level.
    3. All waivers and exemptions will have a risk assessment.
    4. DA Form 7319-R will be completed for each waiver and exemption request.

     

    APPENDIX C
    ARMY VEHICLES AUTHORIZED TO TRANSPORT AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES


    Table C-1 shows Army vehicles authorized to transport ammunition and explosives. Table C-2 shows maximum net explosive weight in kilograms that may be transported in a vehicle plus trailer. Abbreviations used in the tables are explained in the glossary.


    Table C-1
    Vehicles Authorized to Carry Class 1 (notes 1 through 4)
      1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
    M1008, TRUCK CARGO (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M1074, PLS (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M35 SERIES, 2½ TON TRUCK (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M813 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M814 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (XLWB) (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M871 SERIES, TRAILER FLATBED (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M872 SERIES, TRAILER FLATBED (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M915 SERIES, TRUCK TRACTOR, LINE HAUL (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M916, TRUCK TRACTOR (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M923 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M926 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M928 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M931 SERIES, TRUCK CARGO 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M932, TRUCK TRACTOR 5 TON (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M977, HEMTT (EX/II)XXXXXX
    M1009, CUCV (note 3)      X   
    M101 SERIES, TRAILER CARGO ¾ TON (note 3)      X   
    M1026, HMMWV (note 2)      X   
    M105 SERIES, TRAILER CARGO 1½ TON (note 3)      X   
    M998, HMMWV (note 2)      X   
    Commercial and nontactical vans and trucks (note 4)XXXXXX
    Commercial and nontactical vans and trucks (note 5)      X   
    NOTES. 1. An X at the intersection indicates approval for transport.
    2. Servicing ASPs or QASASs should be contacted for vehicles not listed.
    3. These vehicles are limited to carrying hazard class and division 1.4, storage compatibility group S.
    4. U.S. Forces-owned diesel-engine type vehicles with a separate load compartment that have a valid HVCP or meet provisions of national law with an ADR vehicle certificate of approval as EX/II or EX/III.
    5. Vehicles without a diesel type engine, without a separate load compartment, without an HVCP, or without a commercial certificate as an EX/II or EX/III vehicle can be used only to transport hazard class and division 1.4S.


    Table C-2
    Maximum Net Explosive Weight for Transport Units (add vehicle plus trailer)
    Subdivision 1.11.21.31.4 (note)1.5 and
    1.6
    Empty uncleaned
    packages
    Compatibility
    Group
    AOther than
    A
    AllAllOther than
    S
    SAllAll
    EX/II (kilograms) 6.251,0003,0005,00015,000Unlimited5,000Unlimited
    EX/III (kilograms) 18.7516,00016,00016,00016,000Unlimited16,000Unlimited
    NOTES: 1. The NEQ for 1.4S items being transported does not apply toward the total net explosive mass in the transport unit.
    2. Military vehicles in table C-1 that are classified as EX/II can carry up to 7,500 kilograms net explosive weight for hazard class and division 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 while operating in Germany.

     

    APPENDIX D
    FIRE RESPONSE PROCEDURES INVOLVING DEPLETED URANIUM (STABALLOY) AMMUNITION


    SECTION I
    RESPONSE PROCEDURES


    D-1. PURPOSE
    This appendix establishes minimum procedures for preventing, fighting, reporting, and following up on accidents involving fires in vehicles loaded with ammunition containing depleted uranium.


    D-2. GENERAL
    Units using depleted uranium rounds will have at least one officer familiar with the procedures in this appendix and Technical Bulletin (TB) 9-1300-278. This appendix applies only to accidents where the ammunition has exploded or burned. When procedures in this appendix are inadequate, TB 9-1300-278 should be followed.


    D-3. PREVENTION
    The primary causes of vehicle fires are engines overheating and antennas striking trolley and railroad electric overhead cables. Antennas on vehicles must be tied down to a height below 13 feet (4 meters). Debris, organizational clothing and individual equipment, and other equipment must be stored according to loading plans to reduce combustible material.


    D-4. IN CASE OF FIRE


     

    FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES FOR FIRE DEPARTMENTS

    FIRES CONTAINING DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION

    1. When approaching the scene of a fire, prevent equipment and personnel from entering a smoke cloud.

    2. High-intensity ammunition fires and small explosions must be expected. Ammunition smoke and fumes are toxic.

    3. Do not fight fire when ammunition is directly involved in the fire or when rounds have been expelled. Fire trucks must be positioned at least 60 meters (197 feet) from armored vehicles with a closed hatch or 300 meters (985 feet) from armored vehicles with an open hatch.

    4. Firefighters will wear self-contained breathing apparatuses. The recommended particulate-type protection for all other personnel involved is the M17A2 mask with the M13A2 filter element or the M25 with filter element.

    5. Expose a minimum number of firefighters to the fire.

    6. When ammunition is not involved in a fire in the crew compartment and the hatches are open, the fire should be fought with water stream, spray, or fog, using as much protective cover as possible.

    7. If the engine is on fire, dry chemical, foam, or water should be used to extinguish the fire. Water is highly effective in cooling the engine and preventing the fire from affecting the ammunition.


    BRANDBEKÄMPFUNGSVERFAHREN FÜR FEUERWEHREN

    BRÄNDE IN PANZERN MIT ABGEREICHERTER URANKERNMUNITION

    1. Bei Annäherung an die Brandstelle ist darauf zu achten, daß Fahrzeuge und Personal nicht direkt der Rauchwolke ausgesetzt sind.

    2. Bei Munitionsbränden ist mit hoher Wärmeentwicklung und kleineren Explosionen zu rechnen. Dabei entstehender Rauch und die austretenden Dämpfe sind giftig.

    3. Hat das Feuer die Munition bereits erfaßt oder wurde Munition herausgeschleudert, darf kein Löschversuch unternommen werden. Löschfahrzeuge dürfen in diesem Fall nicht näher als 60m an Panzer mit geschlossener Luke und nicht näher als 300m an Panzer mit offener Luke heranfahren.

    4. Feuerwehrpersonal muss Druckluftbeatmungsgeräte tragen. Der empfohlene Schutz für alle anderen beteiligten Personen ist die Atemschutzmaske M17A2 mit den Atemschutzfiltern M13A2 oder M25.

    5. Nur die unbedingt notwendige Mindestanzahl von Feuerwehrleuten sollte zur direkten Brandbekämpfung eingesetzt werden.

    6. Wenn bei einem Brand im Panzerturm das Feuer die Munition noch nicht erfaßt hat und die Luken offen sind, soll mit Wasservollstrahl oder -sprühstrahl oder Sprühnebel gelöscht werden. Deckungsmöglichkeiten sollen soweit wie möglich ausgenutzt werden.

    7. Wenn der Brand den Motorraum erfaßt hat, sollten nur Trockenpulver, Chemikalien, Schaum oder Wasser zum Löschen verwendet werden. Wasser kühlt den Motor schnell ab und verhindert ein Übergreifen des Feuers auf die Munition.

     

    Figure D-1. Firefighting Instructions (English and German)


    Table D-1
    Radiological Protection Points of Contact
    1. HQ USAREUR/7A:

        a. Emergency Action Center:

            (1) DSN: 370-7099/3238

            (2) Civilian: 06221-57-7099

        b. USAREUR RSSO:

            (1) DSN: 370-7751/8124

            (2) Civilian: 06221-57-7751

        c. Public Affairs:

            (1) DSN: 370-6936/9059/8739

            (2) Civilian: 06221-57-6936

    2. Radiation Protection Division, USACHPPMEUR.

        a. Duty hours:

            (1) DSN: 486-7038/7037/8118

            (2) Civilian: 06371-86-7038/7037/8118

        b. After duty hours: 486-8118 or 06371-86-8118

    3. USAREUR Radiation Control Officer:

        a. DSN: 484-7334

        b. Civilian: 0631-413-7334

    4. EOD units:

        a. 720th Ordnance Detachment (EOD) (Mannheim):

            (1) DSN: 384-6661/6658/6696

            (2) Civilian: 0621-730-6658/6696

        b. 702d Ordnance Detachment (EOD) (Grafenwöhr):

            (1) DSN: 475-8332/6238

            (2) Civilian: 09641-83-6238

    5. ACL:

        a. DSN: 495-6122/6486

        b. Civilian: 06331-86-6122



    D-5. REPORTS


    D-6. ONSITE ACTIONS AFTER THE FIRE


    SECTION II
    DECONTAMINATION AFTER DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION VEHICLE FIRES


    D-7. GENERAL
    The procedures in this section were developed by the United States Army Tank-Automotive and Armament Command for handling vehicle fires when depleted uranium ammunition is involved and contamination is detected. These procedures will be implemented by division or corps chemical companies at the request of the onsite RSSO after firefighters extinguish the fire and EOD personnel declare the tank interior safe.


    D-8. PROCEDURES
    Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) response teams (alpha teams) will—


    D-9. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION VEHICLE FIRES

     

    APPENDIX E
    APPROVED SPACE HEATERS


    SECTION I
    FAMILY OF SPACE HEATERS


    E-1. BENEFITS


    E-2. APPLICATIONS
    Four heaters and a thermoelectric fan make up the FOSH (fig E-1) as follows:


    Figure E-1. FOSH


    E-3. CAPABILITIES
    The advantages of the FOSH include the following:


    E-4. DESCRIPTION AND USE

    NOTE: The SHA will replace the current Yukon heater, which has severe operational deficiencies and poses a serious safety hazard in the field. The SHA operates without electric power and can burn all types of liquid fuel (DF-1, DF-2, DF-A, JP5, JP8) and solid fuel (wood and coal).


    Figure E-2. Space Heater, Arctic


    Figure E-3. Space Heater, Convective


    Figure E-4. Space Heater, Medium


    Figure E-5. Space Heater, Small


    Figure E-6. Thermoelectric Fan


    SECTION II
    COTS SPACE HEATERS


    E-5. GENERAL
    The Dantherm VA-M 15 and VA-M 40 commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) space heaters are approved for use in tents. Commanders will ensure that personnel who use these heaters meet the licensing and training requirements of AR 600-55 and this regulation, paragraph 35.


    E-6. DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATIONS


    Figure E-7. Dantherm VA-M 15


    Figure E-8. Dantherm VA-M 40

     

    GLOSSARY


    SECTION I
    ABBREVIATIONS


    ACLArmy Calibration Laboratory, Nucleonics Division, United States Army Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment Region, Europe
    ADR Accord Européen realtif au Transport International des Marchandises dangereuses par Route
    AEArmy in Europe
    AGARabbreviated ground accident report
    ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
    ARArmy regulation
    ASGarea support group
    ASPammunition supply point
    B-LPSballistic laser protective spectacle
    BSBbase support battalion
    CCelsius
    CFMcubic feet per minute
    CFRCode of Federal Regulations
    CNchloroacetophenone (a riot-control agent commonly called “tear gas”)
    CO2carbon dioxide
    COTScommercial off-the-shelf
    CPRcardiopulmonary resuscitation
    CS0-chlorobenzal malononitrite (a riot-control agent commonly called “tear gas”)
    CUCVcommercial utility cargo vehicle
    DADepartment of the Army
    DODDepartment of Defense
    DPWdirectorate of public works
    ECWCSextended cold weather clothing system
    EODexplosive ordnance disposal
    FFahrenheit
    FMfield manual
    FOSHfamily of space heaters
    G1Deputy Chief of Staff, G1, USAREUR
    G3Deputy Chief of Staff, G3, USAREUR
    GVWgross vehicle weight
    HAZMAThazardous material
    HChexachloroethane
    HEMTTheavy expanded mobility tactical truck
    HETheavy equipment transporter
    HIRTAhigh-intensity radio transmission area
    HMMWVhigh mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
    HNhost nation
    HQDAHeadquarters, Department of the Army
    HQ USAREUR/7AHeadquarters, United States Army, Europe, and Seventh Army
    HVCPhazardous vehicle certification permit
    IAIinstallation accident investigation
    IBDinhabited building distance
    IMA-EUnited States Army Installation Management Agency, Europe Region Office
    IMCinstrument meteorological conditions
    ISOInternational Standards Organization
    kBtuthousand British thermal unit
    kphkilometers per hour
    LBEload-bearing equipment
    LNlocal national
    MEDEVACmedical evacuation
    MILVANmilitary-owned demountable container
    mmmillimeter
    MOPPmission-oriented protective posture
    MOUTmilitary operations on urbanized terrain
    mphmiles per hour
    MREmeal, ready-to-eat
    MTAmajor training area
    MTFmedical treatment facility
    NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
    NBCnuclear, biological, and chemical
    NCOnoncommissioned officer
    NCOICnoncommissioned officer in charge
    NEQnet explosive quantity
    NMCnot mission capable
    NOHDnominal hazardous distance
    NSNnational stock number
    NTVnontactical vehicle
    NVDnight vision device
    OICofficer in charge
    OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Act
    PCpilot in command
    POLpetroleum, oils, and lubricants
    POVprivately owned vehicle
    PQTproduction qualification testing
    PTRpublic traffic route
    QASASquality assurance specialist (ammunition surveillance)
    RAWLrotating amber warning light
    RFradio frequency
    RSSOradiation safety staff officer
    SDDC-EMilitary Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, Europe
    SHAspace heater arctic
    SHCspace heater convective
    SHMspace heater medium
    SHSspace heater small
    SOPstanding operating procedure
    STANAGstandardization agreement
    TBtechnical bulletin
    TDAtables of distribution and allowances
    TEFthermoelectric fan
    TEVtrail escort vehicle
    TMtechnical manual
    ULUnderwriters Laboratories
    U.N.United Nations
    U.S.United States
    USACHPPMEURUnited States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine - Europe
    USAREURUnited States Army, Europe
    USEUCOMUnited States European Command
    VBvapor barrier
    VFRvisual flight rules
    WBGTwet bulb globe temperature


    SECTION II
    TERMS


    convoy
    Three or more vehicles moving under a single commander from the same point of origin.

    dunnage
    Any material (boards, planks, blocks, pneumatic pillows) used to support or secure supplies in storage or while in transit.

    lead vehicle
    An Army wheeled, motor vehicle used as a lead escort vehicle.

    march column
    Consists of all elements using the same route for a single movement of troops.

    march unit
    Unit that moves and halts at the order of a single commander. The march unit normally corresponds to one of the smaller troop units such as a squad, section, platoon, company, or battery.

    microwave and radio frequency radiation
    Electromagnetic radiation within the frequency range of 10 to 300,000 megacycles per second or megahertz with corresponding wavelengths of 30 meters to 1 millimeter.

    residual risk
    The level of risk after controls have been identified and selected for hazards that may result in loss of combat power.

    supercargo
    Individuals accompanying cargo on a nonpassenger cargo transport for purposes of security surveillance, technical escort, or other official duty purposes.

    trail escort vehicle
    An Army motor wheeled vehicle weighing 2½ tons or more positioned at the end of a convoy.