United States Army, Europe, and Seventh Army
United States Army Installation Management Agency
Europe Region Office
Army in Europe
15 December 2003
Commander's Convoy Checklist and Risk Assessment
*This pamphlet supersedes USAREUR Pamphlet 385-15-1, 14 May 2002.
For the CG, USAREUR/7A:
WILLIAM E. WARD
Lieutenant General, USA
Deputy Commanding General/
Chief of Staff
GARY C. MILLER
Regional Chief Information
Officer - Europe
Summary. This pamphlet provides convoy checklists for conducting operational hazard analyses and risk assessments and must be used with AE Pamphlet 385-15.
Applicability. This pamphlet applies to leaders in U.S. Army elements who are planning or conducting convoy operations in the USAREUR area of operations.
Forms. AE and higher-level forms are available through the Army in Europe Publishing System (AEPUBS).
Records Management. Records created as a result of processes prescribed by this pamphlet must be identified, maintained, and disposed of according to AR 25-400-2. Record titles and descriptions are available on the Army Records Information Management System website at https://www.arims.army.mil.
Suggested Improvements. The proponent of this pamphlet is the USAREUR Safety and Occupational Health Office (AEAGA-S, DSN 370-8084). Users may suggest improvements to this pamphlet by sending DA Form 2028 to the USAREUR Safety and Occupational Health Office, (AEAGA-S), Unit 29351, APO AE 09014-9351.
Distribution. A (AEPUBS).
3. Explanation of Abbreviations
4. Identifying Convoy March Columns
5. Checklists and Tables
6. Convoy Movement
1. Convoy Planning Checklist
2. Convoy Execution Checklist
3. Convoy Operation-Control Measures
The purpose of this pamphlet is to enable leaders to plan or conduct convoy operations in the USAREUR area of responsibility with minimum risk to personnel and equipment. This pamphlet must be used with AE Pamphlet 385-15.
Appendix A lists references.
3. EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS
The glossary defines abbreviations.
4. IDENTIFYING CONVOY MARCH COLUMNS
a. Convoy commanders will
(1) Identify each march column with NATO convoy flags. Flags should be approximately 30 centimeters high and 45 centimeters wide. Flags are available through supply channels.
b. Tracked vehicle convoy commanders will ensure
(2) Ensure flags are mounted on the left side of each vehicle. Flags will be placed on the right side of each vehicle when traveling through a country where vehicles drive on the left side of the road.
(3) Use a lead escort vehicle (LEV) and a trail escort vehicle (TEV).
(4) Ensure the lead vehicle of each march unit
(a) Displays a blue flag (national stock number (NSN) 8345-00-543-6912) and one or two rotating amber warning lights (RAWLs).
(5) Ensure the last vehicle of each march unit
(b) Displays a sign (black letters on non-glare white background) with the words "Convoy Follows" in English and the languages of the nations traveled through, as follows:
1. "Kolonne Folgt" (German).
2. "Colonne Suit" (French).
3. "Colonne Folg" (Dutch).
4. "Inizio Colonna" (Italian).
5. "Karvani Prapa" (Albanian).
6. "Dolazi konvoj" (Serbian).
7. "Sleduva Konvoj" (Bulgarian).
(a) Displays a green flag.
(6) Determine which vehicles, in addition to the lead, middle, and trail vehicles, should turn on the RAWL based on visibility, weather conditions, and convoy spacing. As a minimum the LEV, TEV, and the middle vehicle will have the RAWL turned on.
(b) Displays sign with black letters on a non-glare white background. The size of the sign will depend on the size and shape of the rear of the vehicle. The sign will not obscure taillights, directional signals, or signs announcing hazardous materials. The sign will state "Convoy Ahead" in English and the languages of the nations traveled through, as follows:
1. "Kolonne Voraus" (German).
(c) Each march unit will have its own TEV, because of the distance covered during the operations. The TEV will not transport hazardous material (ammunition; explosives; petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)) or carry personnel in the cargo area.
2. "Colonne en Tte" (French).
3. "Colonne Vooraan" (Dutch).
4. "Fine Colonna" (Italian).
5. "Karvani Perpara" (Albanian).
6. "Convoj ispred vas" (Serbian).
7. "Konvoj Prethodi" (Bulgarian).
(7) Ensure single-vehicle operators do not operate the RAWL unless the vehicles meet the oversize, overweight, or slow-moving criteria in AE Regulation 55-1.
(8) Ensure tracked vehicles operating alone (with required escort) or in a convoy on public roads in Germany are equipped with a RAWL and are marked on the outside corners with reflective tape.
(9) Identify convoys operating in or through the Netherlands as follows:
(a) The lead vehicle will have two blue flags (left and right) and one blue transparent cover on the right headlight. Headlights will be on low beam.
(b) The last vehicle will have one green flag (right) and one green transparent cover over the right headlight. Headlights will be on low beam.
(c) Other vehicles will have one blue flag (right) and one blue transparent cover on the right headlight. Headlights will be on low beam.
(1) RAWLs are operating on the lead, middle, and trail escort vehicles.
c. March unit commanders will display a black-and-white flag (NSN 8345-00-543-6911).
(2) Each vehicle is equipped with a RAWL, which will be turned on if a vehicle falls out of the convoy. In the Netherlands, the RAWL will be used only when vehicles or loads are wider than 2.5 meters.
5. CHECKLISTS AND TABLES
Leaders who are planning or conducting convoy operations will use the appropriate table (a through c below) to help them assess hazards and risks. The tables should be printed, signed, and filed with unit records to show that appropriate risk assessments have been completed. The glossary defines abbreviations used in the tables.
a. Table 1, Convoy Planning Checklist.
b. Table 2, Convoy Execution Checklist.
c. Table 3, Convoy Operation-Control Measures.
6. CONVOY MOVEMENT
The hazards and risks in subparagraphs a through m below are associated with convoy movement. Leaders and drivers should use the information in table 3 to reduce or eliminate these risks.
a. Accidents from excessive speed.
b. Civilian roadways and traffic.
c. Collisions from following too closely.
d. Inexperienced or improperly selected driver or assistant driver.
f. Hazardous-material transportation.
g. Improper convoy procedures.
h. Improper loading and securing of passengers and cargo.
i. Loss of control and rollovers.
j. Narrow roadways.
k. Operations in the vicinity of other objects and vehicles.
l. Overhead clearance for bridges or tunnels.
m. Poor weather conditions.
| Table 1|
Convoy Planning Checklist
| ITEM TO CHECK || CHECK |
|1. Has a risk assessment been completed to identify the hazards and risks?|| |
| 2. Has a physical reconnaissance been completed on the convoy route to identify the following hazards and risks:|
| a. Steep grades?|| |
| b. Sharp curves?|| |
| c. Areas of black ice?|| |
| d. Chock points?|| |
| e. Dangerous intersections?|| |
| f. Narrow bridges or roads?|| |
| g. Overhead clearance?|| |
|3. Have stripmaps been prepared and distributed to drivers?|| |
|4. Have stripmaps been marked to identify hazards found during reconnaissance (2 above)?|| |
|5. Have MPs and HN police been requested to provide traffic support at hazardous areas and intersections?|| |
|6. Have drivers and assistant drivers been identified for the convoy?|| |
|7. Are drivers properly licensed for the vehicles they will be driving?|| |
|8. Have the most experienced drivers been picked to transport hazardous cargo, and are they properly licensed for hazardous cargo?|| |
|9. Do all the vehicles in the convoy meet TM -10 or -20 mission-capable standards?|| |
|10. Have all the vehicles in the convoy been brake-tested within the last 6 months?|| |
|11. Have rest stops been planned for every 100 miles (not to exceed 150 miles)?|| |
|12. Have rest stops been marked on stripmaps?|| |
|13. Has enough time been allowed for rest stops? (It takes about 15 minutes for adequate PMCS on vehicles. Allow additional time for drivers to use restrooms and get coffee. Plan at least 30 minutes.)|| |
|14. Were all drivers briefed before convoy movement?|| |
|15. Were the following topics covered in the convoy briefing:|
| a. Locations of driving hazards?|| |
| b. Direction for route of convoy?|| |
| c. Convoy speed?|| |
| d. Convoy catch-up speed? || |
| e. Procedures for breakdowns?|| |
| f. Key telephone numbers?|| |
| g. Emergency procedures for hazardous cargo?|| |
| h. Vehicle recovery procedures?|| |
| i. Vehicle spacing?|| |
| j. Procedures for lost vehicles?|| |
| k. Reminder to drivers to complete PMCS at rest stops?|| |
| l. HN traffic laws?|| |
| m. Crew rest?|| |
| n. Refueling-point locations?|| |
| o. Refueling procedures?|| |
| p. Ground-guiding procedures?|| |
| Table 2|
Convoy Execution Checklist
| ITEM TO CHECK || CHECK |
|1. Convoy commander responsibilities:|
| a. Has each convoy with oversize or overweight vehicles been identified, and are vehicles equipped with RAWLs?|| |
| b. Have all vehicles been checked to ensure they are in working order before movement?|| |
| c. Are lead and rear vehicles equipped with front and rear convoy signs?|| |
| d. Are convoy signs in black lettering on a white background, and are they written in English and the language of the country or countries through which the convoy will travel?|| |
| e. Are vehicles carrying hazardous cargo properly placarded?|| |
| f. Is the last vehicle in the convoy 2½ tons or larger, not carrying troops or hazardous cargo, and not a recovery vehicle?|| |
| g. Is there at least one vehicle between vehicles carrying soldiers and vehicles carrying hazardous cargo or ammunition?|| |
| h. Are all vehicles equipped with emergency equipment, warning triangles, first-aid kits, flashlights, and reflective vests? (This equipment must be readily available and not packed under equipment.)|| |
| i. Is there an assistant driver for each vehicle carrying hazardous cargo? (Both must have a hazardous cargo license.)|| |
|2. Senior occupant responsibilities:|
| a. The two-person rule is recommended when convoys will travel for an excessively long time or when road conditions have increased hazards. Has this rule been considered?|| |
| b. Have arrangements been made to ensure assigned drivers do not operate a vehicle for more than 10 consecutive hours or, when the combined duty period exceeds 12 hours in any 24-hour period, without at least 8 consecutive hours of rest?|| |
| c. Are drivers and other occupants wearing seatbelts, if available?|| |
| d. Is PMCS being performed at each rest stop?|| |
| e. Are drivers who appear fatigued or physically or mentally impaired not being allowed to operate vehicles or equipment?|| |
| f. Are authorized seating capacities of vehicles not exceeded?|| |
| g. Are drivers receiving assistance when backing vehicles or executing other difficult maneuvers when an assistant driver is not available?|| |
| h. Are you watching for safety hazards and taking prompt corrective action when required?|| |
| i. Is the driver's field of vision unobstructed by ice, snow, dirt, or other items? (Senior occupants must remain especially alert when visibility is limited.)|| |
| j. Are antenna tie-down requirements being strictly enforced?|| |
| k. Are drivers following the policy in AR 385-55?|| |
| l. Are personnel remaining inside vehicles while vehicles are moving?|| |
| m. Are drivers refraining from using headphones or earphones while driving?|| |
| n. Are personnel being kept from being transported in cargo areas of vehicles carrying cargo? (Vehicles will be used for personnel or cargo, but never both.)|| |
| Table 3|
Convoy Operation-Control Measures
| All vehicle drivers will|
Be qualified in assigned vehicles.
Have assigned assistant drivers.
Receive a pre-convoy safety briefing that covers hazards and local driving conditions.
Be briefed on times, routes, speeds, and break periods and locations.
Wear proper personal protective equipment (for example, Kevlar helmets, hearing protection).
Inspect their vehicles and ensure equipment and cargo are secure.
Not consume intoxicating beverages within 8 hours before scheduled duty or while on duty.
Vehicle drivers will not
Use headphones or earphones while driving.
Eat or drink while driving.
During convoy operations, drivers will
Not stand on the traffic side of vehicles during convoy halts.
Use warning lights during periods of darkness or low visibility.
Begin convoy movement only at the convoy commander's signal.
Maintain close intervals until reaching the main convoy route.
Gradually attain the proper vehicle interval once on the main convoy route.
Drive with windows and vents open to prevent fatigue (weather permitting).
Make every effort to clear the traffic lane if a vehicle ahead is involved in an accident.
New and inexperienced drivers will
Be identified by the commander.
Be trained and licensed according to AR 600-55, vehicle TMs, and AE Regulation 190-1 (or other country-specific guidance).
Be assigned with an experienced assistant driver or senior occupant (officer or noncommissioned officer).
Convoy commanders or convoy planners will ensure
Weather briefings have been obtained for the entire period of convoy operations.
Vehicles will not deploy unless road conditions are "green" at the departure point and destination.
Provisions are made for obtaining weather updates.
Special equipment is available based on weather requirements.
Driving speeds are appropriate to the weather conditions.
NOTE: If hazardous environmental conditions exist or visibility is less than 50 meters, drivers will stop at the next safe rest area until conditions improve.
Convoy commanders will
Ensure vehicle operations are conducted according to AE Regulation 55-1 and USAREUR Regulation 385-55.
Perform a thorough reconnaissance to ensure all vehicles can clear bridges, underpasses, tunnels, and other overhead clearance limits. If not, alternate routes must be selected.
Identify hazards along the convoy route.
Make every effort to schedule convoys around peak travel and congestion periods.
Ensure all vehicles can maintain minimum speeds.
Prepare and distribute convoy stripmaps to each vehicle commander or driver during the pre-mission briefing attended by vehicle crewmembers.
Ensure personnel have been briefed on visual and audio signals.
Plan and provide for adequate rest periods.
Plan for MP or HN assistance to regulate traffic, if available.
Convoy commanders will ensure
Drivers are trained and certified according to AE Regulation 55-4.
Drivers follow compatibility standards in TM 38-410.
Drivers operating vehicles carrying hazardous cargo (fuel or explosives) are briefed on AE Form 55-4AA according to AE Regulation 55-1 and AE Regulation 55-4.
Completed AE Form 55-4AA and applicable DD forms and AE forms in the 55-4 series are given to drivers and maintained as part of the vehicle-movement package.
Drivers in convoys and individual vehicles transporting hazardous material are instructed to use the accident-information sheet in the package as a checklist in an emergency.
Drivers are prepared to clean up any hazardous-material spills.
Drivers are not assigned to drive a vehicle for more than 10 consecutive hours (AR 385-55).
A driver's combined duty period does not exceed 12 hours in a 24-hour period without at least 8 consecutive hours of rest.
Drivers and assistant drivers schedule "split" driving periods.
The convoy takes rest breaks according to AR 385-55. Leaders will comply with AR 385-55 and USAREUR Regulation 385-55 for driver duty and rest cycles. Rest breaks of at least 15 minutes will be given for every 2 to 3 hours of driving time or after every 100 to 150 miles (160 to 240 kilometers).
NOTE: Commanders may determine that additional rest periods are necessary when
· Drivers encounter unusually poor weather or road conditions.
· Hazardous materials are being transported.
· Drivers will be involved in prolonged or unusually difficult exercises or operations.
Senior occupants will ensure
Drivers are properly licensed to drive assigned vehicles.
Drivers do not exceed driving times established by the unit commander or prescribed in the unit SOP.
Vehicle occupants wear seatbelts, if available, while the vehicle is moving.
The authorized capacity of the vehicle is not exceeded.
Maintenance checks are performed properly.
Required safety devices are present, clean, and operational according to AE Regulation 55-1.
Drivers recognize unsafe mechanical conditions on vehicles.
Personnel comply with convoy and march discipline when at a halt.
The driver's field of vision is not obstructed by ice, snow, dirt, or other items.
Chock blocks are placed at the front and rear of vehicle rear tires when the vehicle is parked.
Drivers who appear fatigued or physically or mentally impaired do not operate a vehicle.
Drivers receive assistance when backing vehicles or executing other difficult maneuvers when an assistant driver is not available.
Drivers obey unit SOPs and all traffic regulations.
Vehicle occupants do not smoke in the vehicle at any time.
Ground guides will
Perform ground-guide procedures according to USAREUR Regulation 385-55.
Use standard hand signals in FM 21-305.
Not stand between the vehicle being guided and another object
Vehicle drivers will stop the vehicle immediately when
He or she loses sight of the ground guide.
The ground guide is standing dangerously between the vehicle and another object.
In emergencies when a ground guide is not available, the vehicle driver will
Walk completely around the vehicle to verify clearance.
Select a ground-reference point that can be seen from the cab of the vehicle.
Mount the vehicle, ensuring the ground-reference point can be seen from the cab.
Sound the horn.
Back the vehicle to the selected ground-reference point.
Repeat the process as necessary until the vehicle is in the desired position.
AR 25-400-2, The Army Records Information Management System (ARIMS)
AR 385-55, Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents
AR 600-55, The Army Driver and Operator Standardization Program (Selection, Training, Testing, and Licensing)
FM 21-305, Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver
FM 55-30, Army Motor Transport Units and Operations
FM 100-14, Risk Management
TM 38-410, Storage and Handling of Hazardous Materials
AE Regulation 55-1, United States Army Motor Vehicle Operations on Public Roads
AE Regulation 55-4, Safe Movement of Hazardous Goods by Surface Modes
AE Regulation 190-1, Registering and Operating Privately Owned Motor Vehicles in Germany
AE Pamphlet 190-34, Drivers Handbook and Examination Manual for Germany
AE Pamphlet 385-15, Leader's Operational Accident-Prevention Guide
USAREUR Regulation 385-55, Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents
DA Form 2028, Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms
AE Form 55-4AA, European Dangerous Goods Surface Transport Document (Road/Rail/Inland Waterway)
|AE||Army in Europe|
|DD||Department of Defense|
|LEV||lead escort vehicle|
|NATO||North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|NSN||national stock number|
|PMCS||preventive maintenance checks and services|
|POL||petroleum, oils, and lubricants|
|RAWL||rotating amber warning light|
|SOP||standing operating procedure|
|TEV||trail escort vehicle|
|USAREUR||United States Army, Europe|